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La NADPH oxydase Nox4, approche topologique, modulation d'activité et impact dans l'arthrose

Abstract : Nox4 is a ubiquitous and constitutive source of ROS involved in intracellular signaling. However, a dysregulation of its activity has been shown to be involved in atherosclerosis, pulmonary fibrosis, diabetes, and we suspect its role in osteoarthritis (OA). OA is the consequence of mechanical and biological processes leading to the breakdown of cartilage and subchondral bone. Chondrocytes by synthesizing and releasing matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) mediates proteolysis of the extracellular matrix and is therefore the main actor of OA. In the C-20/A4 chondrocytes cell line, IL-1β leads to the synthesis of the MMP-1 collagenase in a Nox4 dependent manner suggesting that Nox4 might be a good therapeutic candidate for osteoarthristis treatment.In order to shed light on the role of Nox4 in the chondrocyte and to propose new strategies to modulate its activity, 3 mains objectives have been developed in this work.1 - A better understanding of the topology of Nox4 could allow a better comprehension of its function and the development of inhibitors: Membrane topology of Nox4 was assessed by preparing fusion proteins with ubiquitin fused with GFP's tag. This method (ToDUFA) allowed us for the first time to determine experimentally a topology organization for Nox4 with 6 transmembrane domains.2 - The identification of novel partners of modulation of Nox4 activity might be a first step toward the treatment of osteoarthritis: Heme oxygenase (HO-1) is the rate limiting enzyme in heme catabolism, an essential molecule for the catalytic activity of Nox. Our results showed that HO-1 was able to inhibit Nox4 activity and suggest a mechanism involving the release of carbon monoxide (CO) that was produced during the activity of HO-1. These findings also highlight the role of heme in the maturation process of Nox4/p22phox hetero-complex.3 - The role of Nox4 in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis must be validated in primary cultures: Our results showed that Nox4 is the sole Nox isoform expressed in human primary chondrocytes. Nox4 activity, stabilized by the induced expression of p22phox in the IL-1β-stimulated chondrocytes, might mediate the synthesis of MMP- 1, MMP-13 and ADAMTS4. Finally, our data demonstrated that the activity of Nox4 is involved in the positive feedback leading to the neo-synthesis of IL-1β, mechanism that sustains the catabolism.In conclusion, our data suggest a significant role of Nox4/p22phox in cartilage degeneration. We describe a new mechanism by which HO-1 regulates the activity of Nox4 in C-20/A4 cell line and in primary human chondrocytes, predicting a potential therapeutic effect of HO-1. Finally, the first topological model of Nox4 based on our experimental data might provide a basis for the development of inhibitors or competitor peptides.
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Francis Rousset. La NADPH oxydase Nox4, approche topologique, modulation d'activité et impact dans l'arthrose. Sciences agricoles. Université de Grenoble, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014GRENV001⟩. ⟨tel-01558890⟩

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