Les pratiques de microcrédit dans les pays du Sud versus les pays industrialisés : une analyse théorique

Abstract : The objective of this thesis is to contribute, from a theoretical viewpoint, in the understanding of the reasons of the highly publicized success of microcredit in developing countries in order to analyze its efficiency conditions in developed countries. In the first chapter, we seek to identify the key factors of the observed success of group loans, a prevailing practice in developing countries, to demonstrate that they themselves hardly meet these specific conditions and that developed countries satisfy such conditions with even more difficulties. For that, we conduct a descriptive presentation of the main terms in group lending, followed by a theoretical analysis of the incitative mechanisms based on the work of Ghatak (1999), Ghatak and Guinnane (1999) and Guttman (2008). In the second chapter, we focus on an alternative microcredit practice, which is entrepreneurial-like, more appropriate to the rather complex socioeconomic climate of industrialized countries and used in the intent of promoting self-employment. It is a practice that involves matching a microcredit with mentoring funded clients. After pinpointing the stakes and the specificities of this practice, we suggest an analytical model that takes into account the various effects induced by the mentoring included in microcredit supply. Finally, we show that providing mentoring to funded clients in order to sustain microcredit supply is no panacea. The efficiency of this mentoring is specifically linked with the efficiency of the control mechanisms of the microfinance institutions (MFIs) in the selection of the funded projects; otherwise, mentoring may generate a negative bias (or perverse effects). Government intervention is then justified, mainly via three subsidy measures that we put forth, so as to act on the incentives of the participants and to improve the overall efficiency of the mechanism.
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Amadou Bella Barry. Les pratiques de microcrédit dans les pays du Sud versus les pays industrialisés : une analyse théorique. Economies et finances. Université Nice Sophia Antipolis, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013NICE0005⟩. ⟨tel-00860052⟩

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