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L'acrosome du spermatozoïde de sa biogenèse à son rôle physiologique

Abstract : The spermatozoon is a highly specialized cell that must be able to perform specific functions tofertilize the oocyte. It must be able to perform the acrosome reaction, an exocytosis of a giant vesicleof secretion, attached to the nucleus. This vesicle contains enzymes that allow the sperm to penetratethe zona pellucida surrounding the oocyte. The aim of my work was first to study the effect of anenzyme present in the acrosome, the sPLA2 of group X in mouse (mGX). This is the onlymammalian phospholipase among the five tested that has an inhibitory effect on sperm specificpopulation with low mobility. My work has confirmed the specificity of this phospolipase on theregulation of sperm physiology. Second, I participated in the discovery of the gene DPY19L2involved in male infertility, globozoospermia. The globozoospermia is characterized by round headspermatozoa without acrosome. DPY19L2 gene is specifically expressed in the testis and is absent in80% of globozoospermic patients. I then identified the role of this protein, which is involved in theattachment of the acrosome to the nucleus. I showed that this protein belongs to the inner nuclearmembrane where it likely interacts with the protein sun5 which also belongs to the inner nuclearmembrane and whose expression is specific to spermiogenesis. Sun5 is involved in the complexformation, called LINC that connects the cytoskeleton to the nucleoskeleton lamina. The role ofDpy19l2 could help stabilizing the anchoring of protein sun5 in order to transmit the forces exertedby the cytoskeleton to the nucleus of the spermatid during acrosome spreading. Dpy19l2 belongs to aprotein family containing 4 members, Dpy19l1 to l4, which has not been poorly studied so far. Arecent study shows that the knock-down of Dpy19l1 resulted in defective glutamatergics neuronsmigration on the radial glia. The results obtained during my work would improve the knowledge ofCytoskeleton-nucleoskeleton interaction, and give new insight on this new family of proteins.
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Virginie Pierre. L'acrosome du spermatozoïde de sa biogenèse à son rôle physiologique. Sciences agricoles. Université de Grenoble, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013GRENS035⟩. ⟨tel-01552681⟩

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